Broken (fractured) teeth are a very common occurrence in dogs and cats according to the veterinarians in Markham. Pet teeth can break due to trauma (hit by a car, ball, or rock) or due to chewing on hard objects. Any pet tooth can break, however some teeth are more commonly fractured than others, such as the canine (fang) teeth in the dog and the cat, and the upper fourth premolar (large tooth on the upper jaw in the back of the mouth) in dogs.
Signs your pet may have a fractured tooth
- Reacting or flinching when the mouth or tooth is touched
- Trouble eating
- Abnormal chewing (like chewing only on one side of the mouth)
- Refusing to eat hard food or hard treats
- Bloody saliva
- Facial swelling
- Unusually irritable temperament
Tooth fractures refer to tooth injuries involving damage to the enamel, dentin and cement. There are two categories of broken pet teeth: those that directly involve the root canal (termed complicated crown fractures) and those that do not extend deep enough to expose the root canal, but rather only expose the layer beneath the enamel which is called dentin (uncomplicated crown fractures). Both of these types of tooth fracture require therapy, but the treatment can be very different.
Pet teeth with direct root canal exposure are excruciatingly painful to a dog or cat. Unfortunately, only very rarely will animals show discomfort, as they are evolutionarily conditioned to mask pain fairly well, preferring to suffer in silence. But the veterinarians in Markham now know that these animals are suffering with consequences both locally in the mouth as well as systemically throughout the body. This means that in today’s current age of veterinary medicine, it is no longer appropriate or acceptable to ignore broken teeth in our patients. At The Animal Hospital of Unionville we have had numerous clients who have told us that their pet is not bothered by its broken tooth when it is discovered, that later tell us joyfully that their pet is acting “5 years younger” just two weeks after the problem is fixed.
The reason that a broken pet tooth with direct pulp exposure presents a problem is that after the tooth is fractured, bacteria from the mouth gain access to the root canal and infect the tooth. Eventually, the tooth will die and become a bacterial haven. The bacteria then leak out through the bottom of the tooth, and infect the bone in that area. Eventually, the bacteria cause bone destruction around the tips of the tooth root. Next, the blood vessels in the area pick up the bacteria and spread it to other areas of the body, including the liver & kidneys which filter the blood, and potentially to the heart valves, which damage these vital organs. In fact, infected teeth (and periodontal disease) can so greatly affect the rest of the body and its vital organs that the veterinarians in Markham have noted patients with elevated liver and kidney enzymes found on the pre-op blood which then improve or return to normal levels after the dental procedure.
Occasionally, the infection at the root tips will get so bad that an abscess will break out through the skin and appear as a wound on the face, often below the eye. This most commonly occurs with a fracture of the upper fourth premolar in dogs, and it is known as a carnasial tooth root abscess. ( http://unionvet.ca/2017/04/13/abscessed-pet-teeth/) It can also happen secondary to an infected canine as well as most other teeth. In cats, an abscess will usually be due to a fractured canine tooth, but due to the shortness/shape of the nose, this wound will open below the eye as well. Antibiotics can resolve the problem for a short while, but invariably the problem will continue to reoccur if the offending tooth is not appropriately dealt with.
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Dr. Ernst Marsig, veterinarian in Markham
Practicing Veterinary Medicine in Markham for a Long and Happy Life of ALL Your Pets.
Animal Hospital of Unionville, a veterinary clinic on the north side of Hwy 7, serving all pets in Markham, Richmond Hill, Scarborough, Stouffville, and North York since 1966. We are your family vets for dogs, cats, pocket pets (rabbits, chinchillas, gerbils, mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, skinny pigs, etc.), ferrets, and birds (budgies, cockatiel, parrots, amazon, cockatoo, love birds, conures, African greys, finches, canaries, etc.).
Disclaimer: No part of this website constitutes medical advice. Readers are advised to consult with their veterinarian.